FRAM-ini Users of the FRAME semi- quantitative fire risk assessment method expressed the wish for a less elaborate, qualitative fire risk assessment tool for people with a basic knowledge of fire safety. FRAM-ini is the tool developed for this purpose, but it can also be used as an introduction and step stone to the semi-quantitative FRAME approach. In line with FRAME, there is a separate fire risk evaluation for the property and the occupants.  As there are many influence factors to be considered in a fire risk risk assessment, weighed checklists were derived from the FRAME sub-factor calculations.  Such checklists allow a balanced evaluation of  several parameters to produce sub-classes that are subsequently used in the decision tree process. In FRAME , the recommended approach is to tackle first the property  risk assessment and to continue with the occupant risk, as this appears by experience to be the easiest way to define the appropriate overall level of protection. FRAM-ini  uses  also 5 protection categories, which are defined with the same components as in  FRAME, and the link is given between the 5 risk classes and the  corresponding  adequate protection categories .  The five fire protection categories are: Basic: The users of the building are capable to detect a developing fire, leave the fire scene as necessary and call the fire brigade for help. The fire can be controlled easily. Category 1:  There is a basic fire safety plan that tells the users how to react in case of fire and to call the fire brigade for help, and the building is equipped with manual fire alarm and fire fighting means. The fire brigade will intervene according to their standard procedures and be able to control the fire in a short time. Category 2: There is detailed fire safety plan that tells the users how to react in case of fire, and the building is equipped with an automatic fire detection and alarm system and with manual fire fighting means. The fire brigade has established a specific fire intervention plan for the building.  Fire control may be difficult under unfavourable circumstances. Category 3: There is detailed fire safety plan that tells the users how to react in case of fire, and the building is equipped with an automatic sprinklers and and an occupant alarm system.  The fire brigade has established a specific fire intervention plan for the building.  Category 4: There is detailed fire safety concept that includes a fire safety plan for the users, a specific fire intervention plan for the fire brigade and manual as well as automatic fire protection systems tailored to the characteristics of the building. Limitations FRAM-ini can only be used to make a qualitative fire risk assessment. For smaller buildings, the risk assessment can be made for the whole building as one compartment, but for larger buildings, where it is possible to subdivide the building in compartments, it is better to make the fire risk assessment per compartment.  When  the resulting risk class would be  too high, it might be useful to decide first on additional compartmentation and re-assess the fire risk for each of the new compartments.  Classifying risks and protections in 5 classes and 5 categories is a mere decision tool. In practice, there is a wide variation of possible damage and a large spectrum of available protection systems. When in many cases the qualitative risk assessment is adequate to take a decision on the required protection level, the diversity of influence factors is so large that a more gradual approach of risks and protections is needed to develop a tailor-made (fire) safety concept . In such cases, the FRAM-ini decision tree will result in a "Not in scope"  or "non applicable" mention. When a quantitative fire risk assessment is necessary, e.g. for the definition of an alternative or equivalent fire safety concept, FRAME or a more elaborate method shall be used in agreement with the stakeholders.  Property  fire risk assessment The property fire risk class is defined by a eight steps decision tree.  5  risk classes  (RCP I  - RCP V)  are defined with an increasing damage potential.  The risk classes are defined for a fire situation where the fire has to be tackled by the fire brigade  by the own means.  Automatic fire detection and automatic extinguishing systems are not considered in this stage, but included in the protection category. RCP I : the damage to the compartment and its content is probably limited and repairable RCP II: the damage to the compartment and its content is  probably significant but repairable RCP III: important  damage in  the compartment is likely, but  damage to adjacent compartments unlikely RCP IV:  total destruction of the compartment likely, damage outside the compartment is also possible  RCP V: major fire loss possible Property fire risk class and protection categories are linked in the following scheme: Occupant fire risk assessment. The occupant fire risk class is defined by a five steps decision tree.  5 occupant risk classes  (RCO I  - RCO V)  are defined with an increasing potential for victims, be it death and/or injured. The risk classes are defined for a situation where the occupants have to detect the fire by themselves and will  react according to their own risk awareness  and the available knowledge, including signals and readily accessible information, such as pictograms and instructions.  Automatic  fire detection and automatic extinguishing systems are not  considered at this stage, but included in the protection category. The 5 occupant risk classes can be typified as follows: RCO 1 "Minimal" only applies for areas with few people present and adequate escape possibilities. RCO 2 "Limited" applies in areas where a starting fire can be easily discovered  and where people can evacuate with help and guidance from the staff.  RCO 3 "Medium" applies for most areas , where standard evacuation procedures are in use,  but where some people may need to be rescued. RCO 4 "Increased" applies for areas where a safe evacuation of all people  may require fire brigade  assistance. RCO 5 "High" applies for areas where a full evacuation of all people may not be practical. Occupant  fire risk class and protection categories are linked in the following scheme:  The description of the FRAM-ini method can be found here... There is also an spreadsheet available to apply the method :    Microsoft Office FRAMEiniEN3 Template (xltx)      Please note that there was an error in FRAMEiniEN2 in cell E83. The combination ET2 + EX2 gave RCO1 instead of RCO2 ©  Erik De Smet,  June 2013, March 2014