On this page, a selection of documents is presented which are related to fire risk assessment and other items that can be linked to FRAME. Lithuanian asssessment of FRAME. An article published in 2010 in the Lithuanian MOKSLAS – LIETUVOS ATEITIS publication  by Jurgita Šaknaite of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, compares a fire risk indexing approach with more elaborate quantitive risk calculation methods. FRAME is used as risk indexing method. The author gives the following conclusions: “1. The possible ways of evaluating building fire riskhave been considered. The problem of such evaluation is as ubiquitous as the hazard of fires in buildings itself. Attention was focused on two principal approaches to the quantification of fire risk: the application of fire indices and a formal assessment of the risk posed by fires when applying methods of quantitative risk assessment (QRA). These two principal approaches offer two polar extreme possibilities of fire risk evaluation. The risk indices are simple measures of fire risk that can be calculated with relative ease for most buildings. However, the indices are considered to be non-scientific means of fire risk evaluation. The formal evaluation of the risk posed by potential fires is a rigorous scientific procedure allowing relating the event of fire initiation to the potential outcomes of fire. 2. Fire risk indexing and formal fire risk assessment have their own pros and cons. The addressed question Which of these approaches suits better for decisionmaking related to fire safety, insurance and design of buildings? Requires detailed discussions to be properly answered. One can only say that the use of risk indices is more practicable that formal risk assessment.” see the full article here The author of this article is not registered as FRAME user. He apparently used the documentation of this website to analyse the method. It is a pity that he did not get in touch with the author of FRAME. He might have learned that the method is far more scientifically justified and not so far away from a quantitative risk assessment as he suggests. IRANIAN version of FRAME Mahdinia M, Yarahmadi R, Jafari M, Koohpaei A. Presentation of a software method for use of Risk assessment in Building Fire Safety Measure Optimization . Iran Occupational Health Journal. 2012; 9 (1) :9-16. see this link    This article found on the Internet decribes the development of a software program in IRAN based on the FRAME method technical reference guide. Mahdinia M also published  in Persian an article that describes an the application of FRAME for a hospital. It is an indication that FRAME is used in that country. However, the authors of this software are not registered as users of the original FRAME software, and my knowledge of the Persian language is inexistent. FRAME applied  for the Hong Kong Airport Terminal  The new airport at Chek Lap Kok serves as a gateway to Hong Kong and acts as a transfer point to passengers for tour and business. The terminal building is expensive with billions of dollars of construction cost. Therefore, it is very important to ensure life safety and normal operation of the airport. Site visits without disturbing the normal operation of the airport were carried out to understand the safety aspects of the airport. The retail areas were identified to be the key area of concern. By touring around and observing what a passenger can see, fire safety in the retail areas was studied. A design fire was suggested for studying the probable fire environment in those retail shops. The two-layer zone model Hot Layer of FIREWIND version 3.5 was used as the simulating tool. Two retail shops were selected for a more detailed analysis. Key parameters such as the fire load density of each shop were estimated. The software FRAME version 2.0 was applied for the fire risk analysis.  See article published by M.Y. Ng, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China Guidelines for Fire Risk Assessments. Since Fire Risk Engineering has grown as an engineering discipline, several guidelines have been published  to make Fire Risk Assessments that are acceptable to the authorities.  See more on this page ...  FiRE-TECH : fire risk evaluation for the European Cultural Heritage FiRE-TECH was a thematic network of European fire protection experts and practitioners. The aim of the project was to evaluate the risk that fire poses to our cultural heritage and to suggest methods by which that risk can be quantified and managed using the systems and components that are currently available.   The FiRE-TECH Decision Supporting Procedure has been developed to allow decision-makers to choose systems that will have the greatest impact on fire protection, thereby optimising the selection process with regard to the reliability, acceptability and cost of individual fire protection measures. Analyses have been carried out on the current state of EU-wide legislation as it applies to cultural heritage, and on a large number of significant fires that have affected cherised buildings. This provides valuable information to end- users, fire protection professionals and all those involved in the safeguarding of cultural heritage buildings and artefacts; information that must not be ingnored.    A summary of the findings of this project can be found here ... Bayesian Networks In 2004, Dipl. Ing. Trond Maag wrote his doctorates' thesis "Risikobasierte Beurteilung der Personensicherheit von Wohnbauten im Brandfall unter Verwendung von Bayes'schen Netzen ", a document that can be found on : ETH- Zürich, Trond Maags Thesis . The aim of his work was the development of a methodology to assess the risk of fire fatality in residential buildings. It uses a Bayesian network, which determines risk as the expected number of fatalities per 100 million hours of exposure to a building (fatal accident rate). The acceptance criteria are those determined according to the ALARP approach, which takes the view that a building's fire risk should be rendered as low as reasonably possible through fire safety measures, which are then assessed in terms of their economy. FRAME links a larger number of influence factors to calculate a risk factor value, and the interaction of these influence factors can be considered as a network system. More on this subject can be found here ...  Provision of water for fire fighting. In “FRAME”  the existing water supplies are evaluated for their use as fire fighting resource in the water supply factor W and the special protection factor S. A number of countries have their own rules to define the size of the water supply needed for fire fighting operations. Compare this with the FRAME approach here...     Comparison of BS9999  with FRAME BS 9999-2008  "Code of practice for fire safety in the design, management and use of buildings" is aimed as an advanced approach between pure prescriptive fire protection design and a "full"  fire safety engineering approach, for which BS 7974 is the governing British Standard. The FRAME method is also meant to be used for those buildings where the prescriptive regulations cause problems for the designer and where the full FSE approach is often too expensive.  So, it might be interesting to compare the BS 9999 approach with FRAME. A detailed comparison of the FRAME approach and the content of BS9999 can be found here ... Where to find Fire Engineering Related Software   International Survey (2002) of Computer Models for Fire and Smoke : On this website a survey of fire modeling software is given, based on information gathered in 1992 and 2000. The models are grouped in Zone - Field - Detector Response - Egress - Fire Endurance - Miscellaneous -models. FRAME is mentioned under "Miscellaneous". The information comes mainly from the authors. There is no appreciation given about the availability, usefulness, or recent upgrading of the software. The following short guide gives an indication of those models than are still available , based on information given through the internet. FAST, CFAST, FPETOOL, FDS, Smokeview, and others  (USA): NIST Free fire simulation software: various software programs, mixed value bag, not always Windows. FiRECAM and FIERAsystem (Canada) Commercial fire modeling and risk assessment software by IRC, Canada ARGOS  (Denmark) Commercial fire modeling software: Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology, yearly license fee MRFC multi-room-model VIB-MRFC (Germany) - Verein zur Förderung der Methoden des Brandschutzingenieurwesens  KOBRA, ASERI, FIREX (Germany) In-house evacuation and fire modeling software of Integrierte Sicherheits Technik JASMINE  (United Kingdom) in-house CFD- fire software of BRE: Search for ...Jasmine EXODUS and SMARTFIRE (United Kingdom) Commercial evacuation and fire modeling software by the University of Greenwich, price at request SIMULEX: simulation software for egress, part of VE-PRO by IES STEPS Simulation Software of Pedestrian Movements- 3D visualisation, by mottmac BRANZFIRE (New Zealand)is a zone model including flame spread options on walls and ceilings. FireWind (Australia)  : This is a commercial Windows Software package by V. Shestopal for a number of basic fire engineering calculations. Ozone (Belgium): Fire Modelling Software by the Université de LIEGE, Service Ponts et Charpentes, one- and two-zone fire model , downwloadable for free.  A nasty report on FRAME. When you search the Internet for information on FRAME, you may find a document published at the BRE project reports library : Effect of Local Acts on fire risks . In this publication, the FRAME method is critisized based on the analysis of a number of generic cases of warehouses and car parks, as a attempt to estimate the likely impact of local acts on these buildings with or without sprinkler protection. Read the reply to the (anonymous) author(s) of this report.